At the confluence of the great Shenandoah and Potomac rivers there is a place that rests in the arms of history. Nestled quietly in a forest of silver maple and box elder, Harpers Ferry stands as a monument to the ambitions, dreams, and determination of a young nation. Surrounded by rushing water and rolling hills of hardwood, it is lost in a different time. It was a time when Americans were busy carving a trail through a new and uncharted land; a time when our nation’s destiny, though uncertain, held great promise. Standing on a large stone overlooking the area in 1783 Thomas Jefferson noted:
“On your right comes up the Shenandoah, having ranged along the foot of a mountain a hundred miles to seek a vent. On your left lies the Potomac in quest of a passage also. In the moment of their junction, they rush together against the mountain, rend it asunder, and pass off to the sea…this scene is worth a voyage across the Atlantic.”
Though his description paints a beautiful picture for the mind’s eye, Thomas Jefferson saw one thing when he looked across the hillsides to the waters below – progress. Locked in the racing water of these two great rivers he saw the power necessary to build and prosper a nation. Soon after in 1785 George Washington, then president of the Patowmac Company, advocated the area’s industrial potential and proposed it as the site for a new federal armory and arsenal. Harpers Ferry, which had started off as little more than a river crossing for travelers, was on its way to greatness.
The Rock On Which Thomas Jefferson First Stood To Survey The Area
View Today From Jefferson Rock
In 1799 construction of the arsenal began, and Harpers Ferry became one of only two locations in the country to host, what was at the time, such a ‘high-tech’ industry. Soon, with the success of the arsenal, other industries began to flood into the area. Cotton mills, grain mills, pulp mills, stores, supply depots, and construction companies moved in, staking their claims on the firmament of opportunity.
From 1801 to about 1861 Harpers Ferry became nothing less than an industrial boomtown. Its population swelled into the thousands, and it became one of our nation’s most promising industrial cities. As its industry flourished, it also became known as a place of great innovation. It was at Harpers Ferry that Captain John Hall refined the art of rifle manufacturing into a science. Hall painstakingly designed machines and fabrication techniques so precise that, for the first time in history, rifles could be built with interchangeable parts. For years each rifle had been custom built by individual craftsmen, no two being exactly alike. Hall’s innovations in manufacturing revolutionized the industry, and made it possible for the US Army to take spare rifle parts into the battlefield for the first time.
In 1833 mass transportation came to Harpers Ferry. First, the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal arrived linking the Harpers Ferry with Washington City. It was a massive engineering effort consisting of miles of waterway, locks, and ports. It was, for all intents and purposes, our nation’s first super highway, and Harpers Ferry was its western most stop. Just a year later the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad came into town. Demand for raw materials and goods were so high, Harpers Ferry was a logical stop along the B&O route. In just a few decades, Harpers Ferry found itself on the forefront of innovation, industry, and transportation. It was nothing less than a shining example of American ingenuity and progressive thinking.
The men and women who lived and worked there came from all corners of the earth. They were Danish, German, Italian, Irish, Polish, and Asian. Searching to create something better for themselves, they built stores, hotels, produce markets, machine shops, bakeries, and flower mills. Many had come with nothing but, through their own sweat, built lives for themselves and their families upon these shores. Like the great rivers that surrounded them, they moved forward seeking a new vent for their lives, undaunted by the obstacles in their path. These early progressives set out to carve a new home from the wilderness, and write a new tale of dignity, opportunity, and freedom for all the world to read.
Then the war came….
Its strategic position in the northern Shenandoah Valley, made Harpers Ferry a key objective for both the Union and the Confederacy. Over the course of the war, it changed hands between 8 and 13 times, the arsenal was burned to the ground, and the population dropped from over 3,000 to fewer than 100. The most devastating battle took place in September 1863 when Stonewall Jackson placed artillery on the hills surrounding the town and systematically began to destroy it from above. For three days the Union garrison there took a hellish bombardment from Confederate artillery. The town was turned into rubble, bridges were cast into the rivers, and once busy factories were turned into morgues. The Confederate artillery fire was so heavy; Colonel William H. Trimble of the 60th Ohio wrote that there was:
“Not a place where you could lay the palm of your hand and say it was safe.”
On the third day of relentless Confederate bombardment, 15 September, 12,000 demoralized Union troops surrendered to General Jackson in the largest mass surrender in US history. Harpers Ferry had been devastated in the process. In a twist of irony, the town that both armies had coveted so, lay in ruins.
Harpers Ferry was no stranger to irony however. When John Brown and his raiders came into town in 1859 to capture the armory and start a slave revolt, the very first person they killed was a gentleman named Heywood Shepherd – a free black man. When Brown’s team of raiders laid siege to a small armory, President James Buchanan sent none other than Col Robert E. Lee with a detachment of US Marines to put an end to the insurrection. Brown would then be hung for treason against the United States in Virginia, a state that would soon commit the ultimate treason. Perhaps the most profound irony however, was that Harpers Ferry was ultimately destroyed by the very people who had once labored so hard to make it great. The very people, who had once manned its factories, had also manned the artillery that laid it to waste. The very country that Harpers Ferry had helped to forge, first turned their guns on it, and then later their backs.
After the war, Harpers Ferry was only a shell of what it once was. Though many tried to come back and rebuild their lives, a series of tragic floods destroyed everything again. Additionally, the expansion of the railroad had brought once distant cities closer together, and had created new industrial centers that were far less susceptible to catastrophe. Soon, most of the remaining factories in Harpers Ferry closed their doors, packed up their equipment, and moved their dreams to higher ground.
On a recent trip to Harpers Ferry National Park, I walked along the banks of the Shenandoah River past the overgrown remains of its once great factories. As I walked, I could not help but become overwhelmed with the history that laid in ruin around me. This place, Harpers Ferry, was much more than a river mill town. It was nothing less than the story of a nation and the people who had built it. In less than 100 years it had grown from a lonely ferry crossing in the northern Shenandoah Valley, to a prominent center of industry and innovation. It had been envisioned by Jefferson and Washington, but built a stone at a time by real American ‘progressives.’ They were people who yearned for a better way of life, and were willing to sacrifice everything to fulfill their dream. They asked for nothing, wanted no guarantees, and needed no social justice. They did not expect their government to provide them anything other than the freedom that they needed to live, work, and prosper. They were progressives in the truest sense of the word. They built a nation from nothing, and changed the lives of every American for the better. Most importantly, they did not expect to consume the fruit of progress, until they had first labored to create it.
Remains Of Old Rail Bridge – First Destroyed By Confederates And Then Floods
Flood Gates Sit Dormant On Banks Of The Shenandoah River
Ruins of Water Powered Saw Mill
As I pondered these ‘true progressives’ it hit me. Harpers Ferry may have died, but the rivers around it were still flowing, seeking a vent. When the town could no longer sustain the aspirations of its people, the river of progress simply diverted itself elsewhere – but it never stopped flowing. The American progressive spirit that built Harpers Ferry was alive and well, moving out in all directions and building new cities upon the very same dreams. This was able to happen because America, by its very nature, is progress. Our founding fathers were the ultimate progressives. They had a vision of a new type of government; one that valued opportunity, freedom, and dignity over repression and subjugation. The very rivers that flowed through Harpers Ferry had flowed through them first, and they still seek their vent today in the hearts and minds of every American.
The 21st century finds our nation embroiled in yet another great battle. Not with bullets and artillery, but rather with ideas and expectations. Never, since the great Civil War, has our nation been more divided on how we should progress. In the same ironic way Harpers Ferry was destroyed by those who built it, the modern day self-appointed ‘progressive’ is now threatening to destroy America. From health care to energy and banking, they are working to undermine the very might of our nation. In 2010, tried and true institutions created by true progressives such as free enterprise, individual freedom, self determination, and opportunity are under assault by notions of social justice, fairness, and entitlement. The foundations that not only built Harpers Ferry, but also built our nation are rapidly being eroded by a new river overflowing with antipathy. Those who currently, call themselves ‘progressives’ are nothing of the sort. They have no idea what it means to build a nation, but rather choose to focus their efforts on tearing down our greatness. In truth, it would be far more accurate to describe them as ‘regressives.’ Instead of moving our nation’s ideals forward and continuing to build on America’s firm banks, they dam the river of progress and then curse the flood. They can no more understand the currents that pushed Captain John Hall, anymore than he would be able to comprehend their twisted view of America.
I believe that our nation is at a crossroads in history, and that the decisions we make in the next two years will define who we are for generations to come. The forces that drive our country forward will always live in the human spirit, and will flourish wherever they are given purchase. If we do not allow them to flow, they will most assuredly seek another place to vent. And just like Harpers Ferry, we will find ourselves quietly nestled between the silver maple and box elder – a nation that was once great.
Harpers Ferry Shenandoah Street Frozen In Time
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Beautiful photos, informative and easily flowing words…
Such a compliment from a writer of your ability is most appreciated.
Some years ago I attended a state Libertarian convention, and the theme was pretty much the same from one of the featured speakers.
Interestingly, Gary Nolan, the founder of the modern Libertarian Party spoke about a political theory that pointed to cycles, and the year 2012 was noted to be the year that would chart the political path of America for many years to come. Your conclusions virtually mirror what he said back then.
It is funny you should mention that Patrick. I attended a Brookings Institute seminar about 5 years ago, and they also pointed to 2012 as a turning point in American culture. I think that many make the mistake of pointing to Obama as “the” major cultural and social turning point for our nation. I believe that he is no such thing. Obama is simply the alarm clock that awakens the sleeping giant from its ideological slumber.
Thanks as always for your insight. HM appreciates it greatly.
I blew it by a bit. It was the 1998 convention, and he said that the change would begin in 2008. Then would be followed by a major upheaval in 2012. Just what that upheaval might be was anyone’s guess.
It had to do with historical political shifts every 60 or 70 years. I’m trying to find more information and will send you a link if I can find it.
What a truly fine article!
Chuck, you have now clarified the reasons why America should resist the “Progressive” attempts to restructure our country. Their attempts should be exposed for what they are …… regressive. Their heedless quest for power is simply a variation of the tactics employed to subjugate the citizens of Europe to the abuses of monarchy, despotism, fascism, and socialism.
America is unique among nations. Despite our faults, we have moved forward, dealing with obstacles such as civil war, World Wars and attempts at centralized government.
Our attention needs to be refreshed and directed to the lessons that can be learned from American and world history, and your work here is a tremendous help.
I could not agree with you more. As you know, HM is somewhat of a history geek. I believe that there is very little new under the sun when it comes to governance and human nature. For this reason, we can turn to history for most of our answers.
The problem with today’s so called progressives is that they believe that history is unimportant. The tear the rear view mirror off of their ideological race cars and declare that all that is important is the future. This is not only intellectually dishonest, it is dangerous.
I am not an alarmist, as you know from reading my posts, but I am convinced that our way of life is truly in peril, and that it is going to take nothing less than a grass roots conservative revolution to fix it. I pray that it begins this November. Our nation’s survival depends on it.
Thanks as always for your insightful commentary.
Chuck, many thanks to you (and Patrick also) for a truly illuminating post and discussion. As a nation, we currently have good cause for alarm and it is past time for a course correction that will jam the gears of the Progressive movement and enable America to escape the doldrums in which Democratic “leadership” has ensnared us.
During Obama’s campaign, he boasted that he would unite our country and I believe that he will succeed in doing so …… hopefully, the surprise for him will be that he has united a majority of the voters to reject his efforts – and those of his handlers – to weaken and degrade our nation.
Keep spreading the word.
Whew! It sure helps when you have the correct terminology!
Check this out.
Great piece, Chuck – I was similarly moved by Harpers Ferry when I visited it a decade or so ago. But if I may take a slightly different tack…isn’t it true that, but for the American government’s “investment” at Harper’s Ferry, it never would have become a boom town in the first place? Sure, we had to put an armory somewhere, and the technological boom that centered there is not unlike the ongoing scientific advancements made at other locations near essential military and civilian installations. But this wasn’t a place that organically grew out of the wilderness into an industrial mecca – it was not unlike Robert Byrd’s more recent attempts to kickstart parts of West Virginia with federal largesse. How would you counter the argument that Harper’s Ferry was created (and destroyed) by the federal government’s ability (or lack thereof) to grow or protect it? And isn’t the fact that it was never rebuilt a testament to its peculiar reliance on outside support?
I think that it is not so different of a take. My point was that Harpers Ferry was a center of progress, and when the War and floods made it unsustainable the rivers of progress flowed around and then away from it.
I think that there is an analogy here for our current predicament.
My point was that wherever there is freedom and opportunity you will find progress. Take that away, and the river will flow somewhere else.
As an aside, I think the thing that ultimately killed HF was the advancement of steam and electric manufacturing technologies. It just outlived its useful life.
Marque – thanks much or stopping by. Your comment and insight have been sorely missed. Oh, by the way….the offer still stands.
Opportunity, yes – freedom, not so sure. Jefferson’s decision to install that armory may have been a wise one, geographically, and it definitely created opportunities for smart industrialists to work together and create new and better American products. But it wasn’t freedom that established that armory, it was power – specifically, the power of the government to take from citizens and use what is taken for what our representatives consider the common good.
I don’t dispute that this armory was in the common good, or that government had the power to establish it. But as a model for economic progress, Harper’s Ferry rings hollow to me. Imagine if it had not been destroyed in the War. Would there not have been incredible incentives, counter-market incentives given the movement to rail and steam you point out, to keep the armory there? The government had invested much, and the local community was dependent on it and the industry it served. In a few decades, we may well have had an archaic industrial center at Harper’s Ferry, passed by in the rush to the Iron Horse but yet unable to move on. It may well be that the destruction of the armory was, in the long run, good for the nation.
In other words, I agree with your philosophical point entirely. Progressives want to lock America into government-preferred, politically-selected ways of living, whether those be “clean energy,” “diversity,” “sustainable agriculture,” or whatever the current label might be. That isn’t freedom – it’s a top-down, command-and-control existence that is more committed to the government’s ability to get it right than the people’s liberty to get it wrong.
Experiments like Harper’s Ferry go awry when the government becomes more interested in using its power to achieve non-governmental objectives (economic stimulus; green jobs; “sustainable communities”) than the purpose it was originally created to serve – in this case, building armaments, winning wars, etc.. In Harper’s Ferry’s case, it was destroyed at a moment in history when the decision to preserve the stable but outdated past or embrace the hurly-burly of a future of freedom was becoming ripe. We face those decisions every day as a nation, and we only create more problems for ourselves when we use government as a way to install or protect our preferences rather than protect everyone’s right to pursue theirs. The latter course may be messier, but it’s our birthright as Americans. Unfortunately, our present national leadership believes otherwise.
You make a very good point here that I did not really focus on in my piece. Yes, absolutely HF was nothing more than a little ferry stop before the government stepped in. And ultimately they destroyed the very thing that they had built. Governments are very good at that, and I think that the last paragraph of your comment hits the nail on the head squarely.
I was moved not so much by the armory, but by the relics of “other” endeavors that came in the armory’s wake. You cannot walk down Virginius Island and not see the entrepreneurial spirit everywhere. These people came in and built industries for themselves with nothing much else than the sweat off of their brow. Some made it, but many failed. But when the town was demolished it didn’t thwart their spirit…they just relocated it to more fertile ground. No bailouts, no TARPs, no unemployment checks, no welfare, no entitlements.
My hunch is that they knew something that many have long forgotten. They understood that “life” owed them absolutely nothing. Anything that they gained was solely through their hard work. You see the ruins of their dreams covered with vines, but those dreams did not die, they just diverted, and all around this little dilapidated hillside, a nation continued to rise. That is what I found so stirring.